Keturios meno mugAi??s

A?URNALAS: DAILAi??
TEMA: Meno mugAi??
AUTORIUS:Ai??Eric Schlosser
DATA: 2013-12

RugsAi??jo viduryje Maskvoje, Centriniuose dailininkA? namuose, vyko tarptautinAi?? meno mugAi?? ai??zArt Moscowai???. MugAi??je dalyvavo 30Ai??galerijA? iA? Rusijos, Ukrainos, Baltarusijos, Vokietijos, PrancAi??zijos, JAV ir kitA? A?aliA?. Lietuvai Maskvos meno mugAi??je atstovavo dvi Vilniaus galerijosAi??ai??i?? ai??zMeno niA?aai??? ir mobili galerija ai??zGaidysai???. Maskvos mugAi??s kAi??rybos direktorius, parodA? kuratorius Ericas Schlosseris A?iA? metA? vasarAi?? lankAi??si ir Lietuvoje, A?iuolaikinio meno mugAi??je ai??zArtVilnius ai??i??13ai???. A?urnalo ai??zDailAi??ai??? praA?ymu Ericas Schlosseris sutiko apA?velgti keliA? A?iuolaikiniA? meno mugiA? patirtA?.

Pirmiausia paA?velkime A? keturias Europos meno muges, A?vykusias per pastaruosius A?eA?is mAi??nesius. GalAi??tumAi??te prieA?tarauti, kad tarptautines meno muges vadiname ai??zeuropinAi??misai???, bet, A?dAi??miau paA?velgAi?? A? dalyvaujanA?ias galerijas, suvoksime, kad geografiniu poA?iAi??riu 90 proc. jA? yra iA? Europos. ai??zArt Parisai???, ai??zArtVilniusai???, ai??zArt Moscowai??? ir ai??zVienna Fairai???Ai??ai??i?? visos A?ios mugAi??sAi??ai??i?? A?iuolaikinio meno mugAi??s. Vienur kiturAi??ai??i?? kruopelAi?? moderno ir dizaino. Visos 2013 metA? mugAi??s pagrindinA? dAi??mesA? skyrAi?? Vidurio ir RytA? Europai, Vienoje ir ParyA?iuje jo skirta dar ir Artimiesiems Rytams bei Azijai.

ai??zArt Parisai??? netgi pakvietAi?? RusijAi?? garbAi??s vieA?nia; Rusija pirmAi?? kartAi?? atsidAi??rAi?? meno mugAi??s dAi??mesio centre. Taigi 11 A?ios A?alies galerijA? vyko A? ParyA?iA?. Kartu su kitomis Europos galerijomis ai??zArt Parisai??? buvo pristatyta 90 Rusijos menininkA?. Kai kurioms A?iA? galerijA? tai buvo pirmoji ir labai reikalinga tarptautinAi?? patirtis. Ji bAi??tina ne tik tam, kad galerijos galAi??tA? pristatyti savo dailininkus, plAi??totA? tarptautinius ryA?ius, pajustA? realias tendencijas, A?gautA? gerA? meno mugiA? pagrindA?. Tiek pat svarbi ir dalyvavimu A?gyta gero lygio tarptautinAi??s mugAi??s patirtisAi??ai??i?? iA? vidaus pamatyti, kaip kitos galerija veikia, organizuoja darbAi??, kaip eksponuoja meno kAi??rinius. Svarbu tiesiogiai susidaryti nuomonAi?? apie Europos meno mugiA? lankytojus ir pirkAi??jus.

Meno mugAi??s itin reikalingos kaip platforma galerijoms, dirbanA?ioms izoliacijoje arba ekonominiu, meniniu ir politiniu poA?iAi??riu sunkiomis aplinkybAi??mis. Turiu omenyje, pavyzdA?iui, nuostabiAi?? galerijAi?? ai??zYai???, kuriAi?? atradau mugAi??je ai??zArtVilniusai???. VienintelAi?? A?iuolaikinio meno galerija Baltarusijoje! Ar dar reikia komentarA?… JA? dalyvavimas ai??zArt Moscowai??? buvo tikras malonumas. Tokios galerijos kelioms dienoms atsiduria ai??zatvirame pasaulyjeai???, A?gyja kitomis aplinkybAi??mis joms nepasiekiamA? galimybiA?. Rusijoje, Vidurio ir RytA? Europos miestuose meno scena dar tik formuojasi. PavienAi??s iniciatyvos dar nesukuria tvirtos platformos. Galerijos turAi??tA? bendradarbiauti, o ne konkuruoti (tai tikra problema Rusijoje), daryti tai konkreA?ioje aplinkoje, remiamos palankiA? A?statymA?, galAi??damos pasinaudoti skaidriomis finansavimo galimybAi??mis.

ai??zArt Parisai??? ir ai??zVienna Fairai???Ai??ai??i?? panaA?aus dydA?io (atitinkamaiAi??ai??i?? 140 ir 127 galerijos, 21 ir 27 A?alys). Tai gana didelAi??s mugAi??s, taA?iau jA? nepalyginsi su milA?iniA?ka Bazelio muge. Ai?? ai??zArtVilniusai??? atvaA?iavo 50 galerijA?, A? ai??zArt Moscowai???Ai??ai??i?? 32 galerijos iA? 12 A?aliA?; tai nedaug, turint omenyje A?alies dydA?. Bet viskas stoja A? savo vietas, kai prisimeni, kad nesama jokios valstybAi??s paramos, A?alies A?vaizdis nepalankus, aukA?tos transportavimo kainos, sudAi??tingos muitinAi??s procedAi??ros ir kad labiausiai reikAi??tA? atnaujinti paA?iAi?? mugAi??s struktAi??rAi??.

Ai??iuo metu svarbiausiose mugAi??se pagrindinis dAi??mesys skiriamas jaunoms galerijoms ir jauniems menininkams. ai??zArt Parisai??? buvo skyrius, A?avingai pavadintas ai??zViltysai???, jam taikyta A?velnesnAi?? kainA? politika. TaA?iau stendA? kaina ParyA?iaus mugAi??je vis tiek labai didelAi?? ai??i?? apie 10 000 eurA? uA? maA?daug 30 kvadratiniA? metrA?. Bet tai juk Grand PalaisAi??ai??i?? nuostabus architektAi??ros statinys ParyA?iaus centre. SakyA?iau, kad Guillaumeai???o Piensai???o vadovaujama ai??zArt Parisai??? puikiai tvarkosi.

Kalbant apie palankias kainas ir galimybiA? jauniems menininkams suteikimAi??, mugAi?? ai??zArtVilniusai??? nepralenkiama. UA? tokias stendA? kainas kaip Vilniuje negalAi??si dalyvauti jokioje kitoje rimtoje mugAi??je: 500 eurA? uA? maA?daug 60 kvadratiniA? metrA? auganA?ioje Europos sostinAi??jeAi??ai??i?? tai ne rizika, bet investicija. Kiekvienai galerijaiAi??ai??i?? jaunai ar A?sitvirtinusiai. Tokia gyvybinga mugAi?? A?aliai, kurioje tiek daug perspektyviA? menininkA? iA? dalies dAi??l puikaus Vilniaus dailAi??s akademijos darbo ir vietinAi??s bei nacionalinAi??s valdA?ios paramos, yra tikra palaima. O dabar, po ketveriA? metA?, laikas kelti kartelAi?? aukA?A?iau, nes tikrai esama pakankamo potencialo sukurti rimtAi?? mugAi??.

ai??zArt Moscowai??? kainas jaunoms galerijoms sumaA?ino 4 kartus. Tai buvo logiA?ka, turint omenyje 2013 m. pasirinktas naujas kryptis (jaunos galerijos, nebrangus menas, kaimyninAi??s A?alys), bet vis tiek siekAi??me ekonominio tvarumo. Deja, mugAi??s nAi??ra vien komerciniai renginiai, jos atlieka tikrAi?? vieA?ojo intereso misijAi?? A?valgant naujas meno teritorijas, naujas galerijas, iA?kilusius ir kylanA?ius dailininkus, tyrinAi??ja naujas kryptis, priartina visuomenAi?? prie meno, brandina jo socialinAi??s, politinAi??s ir ekonominAi??s svarbos supratimAi??.

Kad mugAi??s formulAi?? bAi??tA? sAi??kminga, reikia turAi??ti omenyje abi lygties puses: galerijas ir sveA?ius. SveA?iai ir kolekcininkai mugAi??je lankosi tada, kai A?ino, jog joje bus rimtA? galerijA?, gerA? kAi??riniA?, kad galAi??s atrasti naujA? menininkA?, tokiA?, kurie galbAi??t dar negalAi??jo savarankiA?kai pasinaudoti tarptautine platforma. Geros galerijos kreipsis tuo atveju, jeigu A?inos, kad dalyvaus reikiami A?monAi??s, o jAi??s suvesite A?ias abi puses, kad sudarytumAi??te palankias kAi??riniA? pardavimo galimybes. Be to, mugiA? poveikis galerijoms neapsiriboja tuo, kas parduodama mugAi??je, svarbiausiaAi??ai??i?? uA?mezgami ryA?iai, ir ne tik su klientais, bet ir su kuratoriais, muziejais, kitomis mugAi??mis, su ateityje planuojamA? parodA? rengAi??jais.

TaA?iau tam, kad tai A?vyktA?, kad pritrauktumAi??te A?moniA? iA? viso pasaulio, kuriA? darbotvarkAi?? tokia uA?imta, turite pasiAi??lyti turtingAi??, A?domiAi?? programAi?? ai??zaplinkai??? galerijA? erdvAi??. Ai??iuo poA?iAi??riu ai??zVienna Fairai??? ir ai??zArt Parisai??? puikiai sekasi. Bet juk maA?iau ir nesitikAi??tume iA? mugiA?, vykstanA?iA? Vienoje ir ParyA?iuje! Bendradarbiaujama su miestA? muziejais ir meno institucijomis, organizuojami pokalbiai gerai parinktomis temomis, A?traukiant svarbius dalyvius, siAi??lomos edukacinAi??s programos. Rengiamos svarbios retrospektyvos, personalinAi??s ir grupinAi??s parodos, kad bAi??tA? galima pasimAi??gauti plaA?ia XX a. dailininkA? kAi??rybos panorama, supinant jAi?? su progresyviausiais A?iA? laikA? menais (be to, koks palengvAi??jimas A?iAi??rAi??ti A? darbus, A?inant, kad negali sau leisti jA? nusipirkti, nes jie neparduodami!). Paskui, A?inoma, reikia gerA? vakarAi??liA?. Nes meno pasaulyje bendravimas nesibaigia uA?gesus A?viesoms. Kai reikiami A?monAi??s susitinka reikiamoje aplinkoje, pusAi?? darbo padaryta!

Man A?domu, kiekgi esama tA? meno mugiA? kAi??dikiA?! Ir tam nereikia grA?A?ti A? XVIII a. ParyA?iaus salonAi?? ar Londono karaliA?kAi??jAi?? akademijAi??, pakanka verA?laus XX a. septintojo deA?imtmeA?io, kai A?iuolaikinio meno mugiA? mada iA?plito nuo Kelno iki VaA?ingtono.

MAi??sA? laikais mugAi??s tapo vienais svarbiausiA? kultAi??ros renginiA?. Pats branduolysAi??ai??i?? galerijA? erdvAi??Ai??ai??i?? yra tokio renginio dalis: juk vyksta profesionalA? susitikimai, lydinA?iosios parodos, kiti susijAi?? renginiai mieste, koncertai, filmai ir t.ai??i??t. Po to tikrai prireikia keleto dienA? atsipAi??sti! Taigi mugAi??s daro nepaprastai svarbA? poveikA? miestui, meno profesionalams bei meno mAi??gAi??jams. TodAi??l jos turi bAi??ti skirtos visoms meno gerbAi??jA? ir profesionalA? kartoms. MugAi??s tapo tarsi dideliais korporacijA? renginiais, kuriuose susitinkame retai matomus kolegas,Ai??ai??i?? juk dirbame aplinkoje be sienA?, be tautiniA? padalijimA?. Tokia ir yra pagrindinAi?? meno paskirtisAi??ai??i?? griauti sienas.

MugiA?, drauge ir aukcionA? klestAi??jimo negalima paaiA?kinti vien ekonominAi??mis aplinkybAi??mis (pastarA?jA? metA? birA?A? sumaiA?tis paskatino pasaulio turtinguosius vis labiau domAi??tis meno kAi??riniais kaip gera ir saugia investicija), reikia atsiA?velgti A? sociologinius veiksnius. Ai??iuos tyrimus dar reikia atlikti. MugAi??ms stinga A?iniasklaidos dAi??mesio, jos maA?ai tyrinAi??jamos fenomenologiniu poA?iAi??riu. TaA?iau jomis susidomi ir skiria laiko vis didesnis ratas labai A?vairiA? poA?iAi??riA?, supratimo ir finansiniA? galimybiA? A?moniA?. Stipriausias pozicijas uA?imanA?ios mugAi??s turi bendrAi?? bruoA?Ai??Ai??ai??i?? be gero meno, A? kurA? galima investuoti, jose sutiksite ir reikiamAi?? ryA?iams bei bendravimui publikAi??. Ir dar vienas aspektas, kuriam kai kurios mugAi??s skiria nepakankamAi?? dAi??mesA?, taiAi??ai??i?? erdvAi??s architektAi??ra, galerijA? iA?dAi??stymas, vieA?os erdvAi??s. Visi A?ie dalykai lankytojams teikia kuo geriausiAi?? apsilankymo mugAi??je patirtA?.

The international art fair Art Moscow 17 held in the middle of September this autumn at the Central Artistsai??i?? House featured 30 galleries from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Germany, France, USA and other countries. Two Vilniusai??i?? galleries, Meno niA?a and the mobile Gaidys, represented Lithuania in Moscow. Art Moscow Creative Director, exhibition curator Eric Schlosser visited ArtVilnius ai??i??13 this summer, and kindly agreed to share his observations of several art fairs with the readers of DailAi?? magazine.

Four Art Fairs

by Eric Schlosser

Lets have a look at 4 European art fairs that took place in the last 6 months. You could object about the wording European when it comes to international art fairs, but when you take a closer look at the galleries exhibiting, you realize that 90% are geographically European: Art Paris (AP), ArtVilnius (AV), Art Moscow (AM) and Vienna Fair (VF). All contemporary art fairs. With a touch of modern and design here and there. All with a focus in 2013 on Central and Eastern Europe, plus Middle East and Asia for Vienna and Paris. AP even made Russia its guest of honor; the first time Russia was the focus of an art fair. As a result 11 Russian galleries traveled to Paris and 90 Russian artists were represented, including by other European galleries. For some it was a first international experience, much needed, not only to be able to promote their artists, develop international connections, or get a feeling of actual tendencies, the basics for good art fairs. But to have a personal experience of a good international fair, how it functions from the inside, how other galleries organize their work, how they exhibit the art. And improve first hand their understanding of the European art fairs visitors and buyers.

Art fairs are especially needed platforms for galleries working in isolated or difficult contexts, difficult economically, artistically and politically. Iai??i??m thinking for example of the fantastic Y gallery that I discovered thanks to AV. The only contemporary art gallery in Belorussia. No further comments needed. It was a real treat to be able to have them in Art Moscow. Suddenly for few days, those galleries are out in the open, surrounded by opportunities otherwise so distant. In Russia as well as other central and eastern European cities, the art scene is still in the process of being formed. Different initiatives do not make an art scene. They need to cooperate and not compete together (a real problem in Russia), and in a structured environment, supported by favorable state laws, and funding opportunities available, as well as transparent.

AP and VF are about the same size (140 and 127 galleries, 21 and 27 countries). Pretty big fairs but still nothing compared to mammoths like Basel. AV brought together 55 galleries. AM 32 from 12 countries. Not much if you consider the size of the country. But once you consider the absence of state support, bank sponsors, the difficult country image, higher transportation costs, complicate customs procedure, and most of all a fair structure in desperate need of renovation, it all becomes clear.

Most important fairs have now developed a focus on young galleries and therefore young artists. AP had a section charmingly called Promises, with a friendlier price policy. The bill is still high at about 10000 euros for around 30m2, but then again itai??i??s Grand Palais, an extremely beautiful piece of architecture in the center of Paris, and I think AP under the direction of Guillaume Piens is doing a great job. If we talk about friendly prices and giving a chance to young artists, then AV comes number one. You wonai??i??t find any good fair at this price. At around 500 euros for about 60m2, in a booming capital of Europe, itai??i??s not a risk, itai??i??s an investment. For any gallery, be it young or established. And in a country with such a tremendous number of promising artists, thanks in part to the impressive work of the Vilnius Academy of Arts and the support of the local and national government, itai??i??s a blessing to have such a well spirited fair. And itai??i??s now time after 4 years to raise the bar higher because the potential to make an important fair is definitely there. At AM we divided prices up to 4 times for young galleries. That was logical considering the three new directions we tookAi??in 2013 (young galleries, affordable art, neighbouring countries), but economically unsustainable. Itai??i??s unfortunate because fairs are not just commercial events, they fulfill a real mission of public interest, by keeping an eye on new art territories, new galleries, up and coming artists, new trends, and by supporting access to art and the understanding of its social, political and economical importance.

To be successful, fairs need to keep in mind both ends of the equation: galleries and guests. Guests and much needed collectors visit an art fair if they know there will be good galleries, good artworks, new artists to discover, artists who may not previously have benefitted from an international platform. Good galleries will apply if they know the right kind of crowd will attend and you will help them connect with them to create sales opportunities. And not only, because fairsai??i?? impact on galleriesai??i?? bottom line does not stop with what is sold at the fair, itai??i??s about connections made, not only with clients, but curators, museums, other fairs, itai??i??s about exhibitions planned further. But to make this happen and attract people from around the world with an heavy agenda, you need a rich and interesting program around the galleries space. In that regard VF and AP are doing a pretty good job. But you wouldnai??i??t expect less from fairs taking places in cities like Vienna and Paris! That means cooperating with the citiesai??i?? museums and art institutions, organizing talks on well chosen topics with relevant speakers, offer education programs. Put together important retrospectives, solo shows, group expositions, for the enjoyment of seeing a wide range of work by the great artists of the 20th century, mixed in with the cutting edge of today (and it is relaxing to look at works knowing you canai??i??t afford them because they are not for saleAi??!). Then of course you need good parties. Because in the art world socializing does not stop when the lights go down! When the right people meet in the right atmosphere, the job is half done. I wonder how many art fairs babies out thereAi??! Not even going back to the 18th century Paris salon or Royal Academy in London, but the booming sixties when contemporary art fairs became quite the fashion, from Cologne to Washington.

Fairs are now more than ever among the main international cultural events happening in a city. The core, the galleries space, is now just part of the event. Then you have professional meetings, talks, parallel exhibitions, inclusions in the city agenda, concerts, movies, etc. A global experience of the fair and the city it is located in. After which you usually need few days of rest! So they fulfill a tremendous role for the city and for the people involved or interested in art. And they must address equally all generations of art lovers and professionals. They have become like big corporate events, meetings with colleagues you seldom see, because youai??i??re working in an environment basically without walls, nationality or borders. And thatai??i??s one the main function of art. Tear down walls.

The booming of fairs, and auction houses for that matter, is not explained only by economical reasons (amid all the stock market turmoil in recent years, the worldai??i??s wealthy are increasingly turning to art as a good and safe investment), but sociological as well. This study has yet to be made. Unfortunately, as it was the case already in the 70ai??i??s, fairs are still insufficiently covered by the media in general and do not generate much phenomenological attention. But they are falling in more and more peopleai??i??s agenda. People of different horizons, different financial capacities. And the fairs that make it to the top places always have one basic common feature: good art to invest in, good crowd to mingle with. And what some fairs do not pay attention to enough, the architecture of the space, the lay-out of galleries, of public areas, all things that will help have a spacious feel to create the best possible visitor experience.